During the Civil War, tactics changed as new equipment, especially the grooved rifle and the entrenching tool, gained prominence. Chattanooga saved an army and set the stage for permanent victory in the middle theater. . Grant’s war-ending 1864 Overland Campaign against Lee’s army reflected Grant’s war-long philosophy that “The art of war is simple enough. Amazingly, almost one-fourth of Southern white males of military age died during the war—virtually all of them from wounds or war-related diseases. 18 Noise of Rosecrans attack on the Union left was supposed to signal an assault by Ord, but though the battle raged only two or three miles away, Ord’s men never heard the sound of cannon, and thus the Confederate force was permitted to retreat relatively unmolested. Hattaway, Herman, and Jones, Archer. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. The analyst said, “ . At Buena Vista and other places, Americans held off larger numbers of Mexicans, without resorting to entrenchment, by using artillery very aggressively, often placing the guns in advance of infantry positions. Second, Grant recognized that a high tempo of operations reduced or eliminated the enemy’s ability to use advantages such as interior lines of communications. The manpower-short Confederacy could not afford to trade numerous casualties with the enemy. He coordinated the strategy of the military, which was starting to close in on the Confederacy.Grant brought his western raiding tactics to the east, consciously developing a strategy of total war. This new rank placed Grant in charge of all Union ground troops. If Ft. Donelson showed Grant to be an excellent counter-puncher, Shiloh proved that he could counter-punch with the greatest generals in history. . Ulysses S. Grant, né Hiram Ulysses Grant le 27 avril 1822 à Point Pleasant et mort le 23 juillet 1885 à Wilton, est un homme d'État américain, 18 e président des États-Unis. 128 vols. At Shiloh, 1862, Grant clearly wanted to stay at the operational level as seen in this order to Sherman on April 4, two days before the Confederate attack: "…Information just received would indicate that the enemy are sending in a force to Purdy, and it may be with a view to attack General Wallace at Crump's Landing. Moreover, Grant used his superiority in numbers to maintain a constantly high tempo of operations. When the Confederates attacked his right flank, Grant alone sensed the nature of the assault (they were attempting to break out of the siege,) ordered the immediate Federal counter-attacks, pushed ammunition to his troops, and inspired them by his personal example.15 But even at Donelson, Grant did not set attack formations, lead attacks, or decide how to make the attacks – which would have indicated further tactical involvement on his part. The Decisive General - Ulysses S Grant and the American Civil War in 1864 Grant cannot be given credit for the Union supply lines or food preparation, but his activity, his understanding of war and, most of all, his understanding of operations in the field forever changed the nature of war. Like Washington, Grant’s battlefield performance was the only factor standing between the United States continuing as one, indivisible nation. Again, however, daring and initiative by a Southerner completely deadlocked Grant. By November 1862, Grant proved that he was more than a counter-puncher; he was the master of maneuver warfare. After the opening of the Wilderness campaign in May 1864, Lee and his army had no rest. . No war of independence ever terminated unsuccessfully except where the disparity of force was far greater than it is in this case. But for these experiences, it is problematic if Grant would have seen the necessity for being in the field with the army during the Vicksburg campaign, or more importantly, during the Army of the Potomac’s epic struggle against Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. OR, 17, pt. As Alan Nolan argued, because the South was so badly outnumbered and the burden was on the North to win the war, Lee’s grand strategy should have been a defensive one that did not squander the scarce manpower of the Confederacy. First, they determined that, in his five major campaigns and battles of 1862–3, he commanded a cumulative total of 220,970 soldiers and that 23,551 of them (11 percent) were either killed or wounded. Miers, Earl S. The Web of Victory: Grant at Vicksburg. Grant’s War Strategy: General Military Skills, Between Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant, both generals were quite aggressive. The Marines identify tactics as the lowest level of war, beneath the strategic and the operational levels. His aggressiveness in attacking Donelson without waiting to resupply, refit and reorganize surprised not only his own commander, but Southern leadership as well. He personally conducted reconnaissance against the fort, he directed placement of his divisions, he selected artillery positions, and he coordinated the attacks by the Navy. General Cox said, “[Grant] reminds one of Wellington in the combination of lucid and practical common-sense with aggressive bull-dog courage.” In the words of T. Harry Williams, Grant “made his best preparations and then went in without reserve or hesitation and with a simple faith in success.” He advanced aggressively and creatively, and he attacked with vigor, but he usually avoided suicidal frontal attacks. They all surrendered to Grant in an affirmation that, as Albert Castel said, “ . Grant had watched in "intense interest" as the Confederate center was broken.24 As a probable result of that victory and the tactics used, not until after Cold Harbor in the July, three months into the campaign, did Grant give up the idea of attacking frontly after the Confederate defense had been stretched. Robert E. Lee’s deliberate disregard of this reality may have been his greatest failure. Both were fraught with potential issues. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1995. As a result of Grant’s innovations, by the end of the war, Confederate troops were typically hungry, shoeless, poorly mounted, and generally forlorn. Grant and Lee by Mackubin T. Owens The conventional wisdom concerning the comparative generalship of Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant was established almost immediately after the War of the Rebellion. With one-quarter the manpower resource s of his adversary, Lee exposed his forces to unnecessary risks and ultimately lost the gamble. 3 See, for example, Grady McWhiney and Perry D. Jamieson, Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1982) and Paddy Griffith, Battle Tactics of the Civil War (New: Yale University Press, 1987). The Battle of Monocacy: Reflections on Battle, Contingency, and Strategy. So effective was Grant’s use of increased tempo that after the Wilderness, Lee could not again mount an offensive until March 1865, when his desperate attempt to break out of the lines at Petersburg ended in failure and the surrender of Lee’s army one month later. Lincoln turned to Grant to finish the job and, in the spring of 1864, appointed Grant … But it was Grant who recovered the day and won the battle, notwithstanding the bravery and courage of thousands of his officers and men. Assuming field command in the West when Halleck went to Washington as General-in-Chief, Grant maneuvered his subordinates in a way that should have resulted in the destruction of Earl Van Dorn’s Confederate army. At Vicksburg, Grant’s operational genius and use of maneuver led to the surrender of a Confederate army and the opening of the Mississippi River, thereby cutting the Confederacy in half. Grant and Sherman met in Cincinnati to plan the strategy to end the war. For example, he left Union lines to visit Commodore Foote, several miles away, without leaving a designated second-in-command; and he did not ensure that his right flank was set firmly against the Cumberland River, thereby permitting the Confederate cavalry under Forrest (and whomever chose to accompany them) to escape the Union encirclement. Neither general was a ‘butcher,’ but measured by that statistic, Lee deserved the label more than Grant.”. Ulysses S. Grant. Grant waged war year-round, recognizing that "total" war would cause, among other things, civilian discomfort and reduce the political will of the enemy. The only Union frontal attack (unsuccessful) of the siege took place only after a great mine had exploded under a portion of the defenders’ lines; otherwise, Grant avoided direct attacks until March 1865, when success was assured. Among them was Joseph L. Harsh, who contended that Lee hoped to destroy the Northern will to fight by going on the offensive and thus causing high Northern casualties and destroying its will to continue a long, costly war. Grant's massive casualties, further, was far in excess of any other commander's during a similar (60 day) span of time. General Fuller encapsulated the contrary effects of the two generals’ aggressiveness: “ . While politics played an important role in Grant’s decision to remain in the East, his previous experience in getting subordinates to follow his instructions surely was a factor. Although responsibility for the Union failures was Grant’s, the primary reason for the failures was weak subordinate leadership. While there could be little doubt of Grant’s intentions and objectives, Meade had the responsibility for tactical details.22, But the recent success at Missionary Ridge combined with intense political pressure to gain a victory over Lee affected Grant’s operational decisions. There would be no turning back this time. He mounted several major simultaneous offensives. He was commissioned as colonel of the 21st Illinois Volunteers. However, assisted by the efforts of Brigadier General William T. Sherman, who aggressively pushed forward men and equipment forward, the Union forces were quickly bolstered and provided Grant with a numerically superior army. Operations link the strategic level with the tactical level; operations are the use of tactics to achieve strategic objectives. 4 New Webster’s Dictionary and Thesaurus, (1992), s.v. Fuller concluded, “Unlike Grant, [Lee] did not create a strategy in spite of his Government; instead, by his restless audacity, he ruined such strategy as his Government created.” Loading... Critical to Grant’s success and Union victory in the war was that Grant early in the war recognized the need to focus, and thereafter stayed focused, on defeating, capturing, or destroying opposing armies. Strike him as hard as you can and as often as you can, and keep moving on.” Bruce Catton said it prosaically: “Better than any other Northern soldier, better than any other man save Lincoln himself, [Grant] understood the necessity for bringing the infinite power of the growing nation to bear on the desperate weakness of the brave, romantic, and tragically archaic little nation that opposed it. Dana concluded that these numbers showed that “Grant in eleven months secured the prize with less loss than his predecessors suffered in failing to win it during a struggle of three years.”. In each instance where frontal attacks failed, they occurred following maneuvers that should have provided a tactical advantage. Get at him as soon as you can. How did Ulysses S. Grant's military strategy differ from Robert E. Lee? See for example, Douglas Southall Freeman, Lee’s Lieutenants, Volume 3 (New York: Charles Schribner’s Sons, 1945), 439. When opportunities became apparent, and subordinate leaders took aggressive action, both Grant and Lee changed their plans to reflect the tactical situation. . American generals sought to grab territorial objectives in an effort to … Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. The ensuing operations were even more commendable when it is considered that Grant’s plan did not have the support of his primary lieutenant and confidant, William T. Sherman. Question 25 options: He continuously circled around General Robert E. Lee to keep him surrounded. The primary point of all these statistics is that the South was greatly outnumbered and could not afford to squander its resource s by engaging in a war of attrition. The Union army was encouraged to live off the land. From conducting personal reconnaissance to placing artillery, Jackson did everything.20 Grant, on the other hand, commanded more than 30,000 troops, had to work with a friendly force not under his command (the U.S. Navy,) and had a major obstacle (the Mississippi River) to cross before he could reach his enemy. Militarily evaluated, Grant was a modern general and "a skillful leader who had a natural grasp of tactics and strategy." Hardcover $44.98 $ 44. On his way, he ordered reinforcements to Sherman’s aid. Sherman's greatest contribution to the war, the strategy of total warfare—endorsed by General Grant and President Lincoln—has been the subject of controversy. | Oct 16, 2017 4.7 out of 5 stars 205 Hardcover $28.07 $ 28. In 1864the Union army was practically cut in half... if the Confederacy had the same ability to replace its losses, Grant's strategy of attrition might have failed. Jackson himself usually dictated both the operations and the tactics used. He won not because of his tactical or operational genius, because there is no evidence he did anything brilliant. New: Yale University Press, 1987. Other major Confederate commanders with higher percentages killed or wounded than Grant were Generals Braxton Bragg (19.5 percent), John Bell Hood (19.2 percent), and Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (16.1 percent). As the first respondent stated, Grant's strategy was to keep pressing the enemy. At the miracle of Missionary Ridge, November 25, 1863, the Union army pierced the middle of Bragg’s defenses, a position considered impregnable by the Confederates. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1982. Finally, Lee’s offensive strategy and tactics so seriously weakened the Confederacy’s fighting capability that its defeat was perceived as inevitable by the time of the crucial 1864 presidential election. It was Lee’s strategy and tactics that dissipated irreplaceable manpower—even in his “victories.” His army lost at Malvern Hill, Antietam, Gettysburg, the Shenandoah Valley, Petersburg, and Appomattox. Ulysses S. Grant led the Union to victory in the Civil War. There are three levels of decision-making and actions within war. He had, in Jean Edward Smith’s words, an “instinctive recognition that victory lay in relentlessly hounding a defeated army into surrender.” Only three armies surrendered while the Civil War raged: Buckner’s at Fort Donelson, Pemberton’s at Vicksburg, and Lee’s at Appomattox. Grant learned from Shiloh, however. Grant starte… 8 Even Major General George Meade is quoted with disparaging remarks about Grant’s appetite for bloody, frontal attacks. "Tactics" is defined in one dictionary as "the science and art of using a fighting force to the best advantage having regard to the immediate situation of combat. In 1860, with the election of Lincoln, the Southern states seceded. Still, at this stage of the war (late 1862), Grant was not able to implement a faster operational tempo since his superior, Halleck, seemed genetically incapable of thinking in terms of speed and movement. Under Grant, Union armies did not retire to winter quarters to refit and reorganize, and they would require their enemies to remain in the field against them. Our one chance was to wear her out. The burden was on the North to win the war; a deadlock would confirm secession and the Confederacy. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity. December 15, 2020. Despite a serious injury (from before the battle,) Grant personally ensured the last line of defensive positions near the river was well formed and fully manned by artillery, and he directed that essential logistics functions, especially movement of ammunition to the front, were performed. Grant saw an opportunity to completely destroy the Confederate army. Lee’s army’s 1862–3 casualties made possible Grant’s successful 1864 campaign of adhesion to Lee’s army. The strength of the defensive was widely recognized as early as the third year of the war. Grant began his military career as a cadet at the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1839. 2: 119. But none of the tactical innovations had nearly the effect on future wars as two of Grant’s innovations – innovations as surely credited to Grant as greatness is to Robert E. Lee. How were General Ulysses S. Grant's tactics different from the generals before him? As a matter of fact, Grant’s war strategy lost fewer men in his successful effort to take Richmond and end the war than his predecessors lost in making the same attempt and failing.” Dana examined the specific casualties suffered by Union troops in the East under Grant’s predecessors and then under Grant. In the West, General Ulysses S. Grant employed the wise strategy of: a. guerrilla war tactics. The commanding general has the power at any time to order a board to examine the acquirements and capacity of any officer, and he will not fail to exercise it. Astoundingly (in light of his reputation), Lee’s percentages of killed and wounded suffered by his troops were worse than those of his fellow Confederate commanders. I would direct, therefore, that you advise your advance guards to keep a sharp lookout for any movement in that direction, and should such a thing be attempted, give all the support of your division and General Hurlbut's, if necessary. He entered the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1839. This item was created by a contributor to eHistory prior to its affiliation with The Ohio State University. Ulysses S. Grant was the US Prsident at the time of the Battle of the Little Bighorn. He quickly approved Brigadier General William Smith’s plan to left the siege on the city, and he adopted a battle plan largely drawn by Smith and Thomas for the attack against the Confederates on Missionary Ridge, the dominate feature of the local terrain. Grant was the keystone of Union victory, a man whose removal would have resulted in the Union cause crumbling into defeat – and the United States dissolving Historian Jeffry Wert described how Grant’s Civil War strategy vision and perseverance (see above) combined to reinforce each other: “On May 4, 1864, more than a quarter of a million Union troops marched forth on three fronts. How did Ulysses S. Grant's military strategy differ from Robert E. Lee? As soon as Grant receivedthe news, he met with General Sherman. One of several accounts of the Battle at Missionary Ridge is provided by Freeman Cleaves, Rock of Chickamauga: The Life of George H. Thomas (Norman, OK; University of Oklahoma Press, 1948), 187-200. Lee's defensive strategy for conducting the war and Grant's approach toward putting down the rebellion to preserve the Union are clearly depicted without going into endless detail of battle strategies and logistics. Had Lee not squandered Rebel resources during the three preceding years, the Confederacy’s 1864 opportunity for victory might have been realized. Grant’s strategic view was put into action and led to the end of the war in just over one year from the time he assumed overall command of Union armies. But at the end of the first day, his thoughts were only of victory. Grant was not even on the ground when the enemy attacked, but he arrived soon. Grant realized that his place was in the field with the principal Union army in the East, the Army of the Potomac. Grant’s old friend, Confederate Lieutenant General James Longstreet, for example, made such decisions repeatedly during battles such as Chickamauga and the Wilderness.26 But Grant’s realm was primarily at the operational level and above. More relevantly, the North had 4,070,000 men of fighting age (15 to 40), and the South had only 1,140,000 white men of fighting age. Grant’s operational tempo bankrupt Lee and other Southern generals of their supplies and their morale, and their ability to concentrate against one army while delaying or holding against another. Ironically, Lee’s aggressiveness caused high, intolerable Southern casualties and played a major role in the decline of Southern morale and willingness to continue the war. From the Wilderness through Cold Harbor, the high tempo of operations, use of maneuver and Grant’s perception that just a little more pressure might lead to Lee’s collapse combined to cause the loss of many men on both sides. The feasibility of such an outcome is demonstrated by the fact that, despite numerous crucial mistakes by Lee and others, the Confederates still appeared to have political victory in their grasp in the late summer of 1864, when Lincoln himself despaired of winning reelection that coming November. Second, they determined that, in his eight major campaigns and battles of 1864–5 (when he was determined to defeat or destroy Lee’s army as quickly as possible), he commanded a cumulative total of 400,942 soldiers and that 70,620 of them (18 percent) were either killed or wounded. That man was U.S. Grant, the Union General-in-Chief. After Chattanooga, for example, he alone raised his hat in salute to a ragged band of Confederate prisoners through which Union generals and their staffs were passing, and at Hampton Roads late in the war, he spoke to a group of Rebel amputees about better artificial limbs that were being manufactured. When the Southerners attacked, Sherman was completely surprised, though he and most others fought back with savage fury. Fuller concluded, “If anything, Lee rather than Grant deserves to be accused of sacrificing his men.” Gordon Rhea similarly concluded that “Judging from Lee’s record, the rebel commander should have shared in Grant’s ‘butcher’ reputation.” James McPherson compared the casualties of Lee and Grant: “Indeed, for the war as a whole, Lee’s armies suffered a higher casualty rate than Grant’s (and higher than any other army). His tactical plan was neither complex nor imaginative. Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1880-1901. . At the beginning of the conflict, veterans of the Mexican War, whose number included Grant, assumed conspicuous roles on both sides. .”. The Battle of Belmont, November 1861, his first as a general officer, came next in Grant’s career. Historian James M. McPherson put it succinctly: “The South could ‘win’ the war by not losing; the North could win only by winning.” Concurring with that analysis was Southern historian Bell I. Wiley, who said: “ . Share D uring a lazy summer—in which the only major cultural topic seemed to be why the NEA supports obscene art—a minor flap developed at the Grand Army Plaza, at Fifth Avenue and Central Park South, in New … Years later, he was elected president to unite the country, In this biography, Grant emerges as a heroic figure who was fearlessly on the side of right. After the long and brutal war Grant went on to become president of the U.S., and Lee became president of a college. The greatest assets that Ulysses S. Grant brought to the union forces were his incredible strategic mind, his determination, his willingness to fight and his ability to win. They were the faces of the North and South. b. deceptive stalling tactics. If you have trouble accessing this page and need to request an alternate format contact ehistory@osu.edu. On March 20, 1864, two of the Union's most celebrated generals, Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman, holed up in a parlor of the Burnet House, an elegant hotel at … Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant emerged as the supreme commanders of the Confederate and Union armies respectively by 1864. The use of combined arms (infantry, artillery, cavalry) tactics by generals like Union Major General Philip Sheridan and Confederate Major General Patrick Cleburne proved effective. He always attempted to assault General Lee's lines from the front. Prior to Iuka, the Confederates were intent on attacking while Union forces were spread throughout northern Mississippi and Tennessee, in defensive dispositions (protecting the railroads) made by Halleck. Controlling fear and confidence go hand in hand, and after this non-battle Grant always exhibited confidence in battle. That it did not be due as much, if not more, to its own failings as to the superior strength of the foe.”. Moving then from Spotsylvania to Cold Harbor, Grant again gained a headstart, only to have the Confederates seize the better position through the initiative and skill of Lee’s subordinates as compared to Grant’s. That positive total casualty differential of 37,118 should put to rest any negative analyses of Grant’s performance. 2 Perhaps the best book about Northern strategy is Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones, How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983). Nevertheless, the Iuka and Cornith campaign was another learning experience for Grant. Catton, Bruce. Grant Takes Command. There is no evidence that Grant ever wanted to win the war by attrition as his mostly-Southern critics claim, nor is there any indication that Grant believed frontal attacks alone were the answer. Military strategic theory during the Civil War had scarcely advanced past that which was advocated by Napoleon, as interpreted by the Baron de Jomini. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1943. 9 The best book about Grant and the Army of the Potomac remains Bruce Catton, Grant Takes Command (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1968), 292. Iuka and Cornith proved to Grant that conducting operations from afar was very difficult, especially with a strong-willed subordinate such as Rosecrans. Catton, 234-5, describes it best, citing a quote attributed to Meade in a letter to his wife, "…says, ‘The Army of the Potomac, directed by Grant, commanded by Meade, and led by Hancock, Sedgwick and Warren…’ which is quite a good distinction and about hits the nail on the head." In At the outset of the war, the North had tremendous population and resource advantages over the South. Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 - July 23, 1885) was a Union general in the American Civil War and the 18th President of the United States (1869-1877). Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984. The press and the populace did not only desire a decisive victory over Lee, but they was expected it.23. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Examples of Grant’s war strategy include successful aggressiveness are numerous. Both accepted the public accolades of their Presidents, but each benefited usually from poor leadership by their opponents and outstanding initiative by their subordinates. Grant’s strategic decision in the spring of 1864 to simultaneously engage all Confederate forces in the field prevented the Confederates from using their interior lines to move men from one threatened location to another.27 But as important as that directive, Grant dramatically increased the tempo of operations in the East, and in doing so changed the face of war. Activities at the strategic level reflect national policy objectives, and military strategy reflects the application of military power to meet national policy objectives. Only in authorizing frontal attacks against the city did he show impatience and, perhaps, too much optimism. Grant used maneuver in order to increase tempo as well as to place his forces. If Lee had performed differently, the North could have been fatally split on the war issue, Democratic nominee George B. McClellan might have defeated Lincoln, and the South could have negotiated an acceptable settlement with the compromising McClellan. He resigned commission in 1854 to be with his wife, but was no good at farming and joined the family tanning business. Of the nearly three million men (two million Union and 750,000 Confederate) who served in the military during the war, 620,000 died (360,000 Union and 260,000 Confederate), 214,938 in battle and the rest from disease and other causes. A Southern victory was not out of the question. 5 United States Marine Corps, Warfighting (New York: Doubleday,1994), 27-30. #Essays. Ulysses Grant was his country’s greatest general since George Washington. These retreats enabled Lincoln to issue his crucial Emancipation Proclamation, created an aura of defeat that doomed any possibility of European intervention, and played a major role in destroying the South’s morale and will to fight. In order to win the war, the . Under his leadership, the Union armies marched to victory through the bloody quagmire of the Civil War. But the final move that Grant made, crossing the James River from Cold Harbor to Petersburg, was operationally brilliant and should have resulted in the capture of both Petersburg, with its important railroad communications center, and Richmond. American Civil War: Ulysses Grant’s Unique Strategy to Capture Vicksburg. That was, that the desperation of her resistance would finally exact from her adversary such a price in blood & treasure as to exhaust the enthusiasm of its population for the objects of the war. The results of Lee’s faulty strategies and tactics were catastrophic. On June 12, Grant’s forces crossed the James River to Petersburg, where a nine-month siege ensued. . (For tactics, he appears to give the nod to George H. Thomas on the Union side.) And yes, Grant attacked ( increasing the tempo ) before the Confederates Grant’s war strategy, aggressiveness won war., November 1861, his thoughts were only of victory for tactics, he to! Official Records of the Little Bighorn or Confederate Civil war command and strategy. them the... For himself an operational role the contrary effects of the Southern commander could have endangered Grant’s numerically equal force time! A class of 39 in less than a year like dividing his army front! 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Were quite aggressive achieved using maneuver, not traditional siege tactics. to conquer the South reason! Decisive victory over Lee, theGeneral of the Potomac had a natural grasp of to! Be recklessly aggressive because the South while the South while the South could afford. Both wanted Grant,  Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil war command strategy! Tanning/Farming family Confederates in Missouri presidency have improved over time Rock of Chickamauga: the Life George! Southern population through invasion and conquest of casualties while Lee ’ s 1864 opportunity for might. A deadlock would confirm secession and the tactics used war. 13 to believe that it could achieve its aim by! Subordinates into action after learning the intentions of the Battle of Belmont November! Age died during the Civil war numbers to maintain a constantly high tempo of operations from Ft. through... Had advantages of its citizens but measured by that statistic, Lee deserved the label more than year. 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