aHWBlH#;+tkT#2qC9>F9(jgL9^4Tn$1"77e%0Wr15u:jFS_B@4'cm3mEVXPQ!%Au" Copyright © 2019 Barista Hustle, All Rights Reserved! ,%E7/1B@eP_-V[JCAY4Ea!uKOMC_d=%iJg#;hFGY>Jo`2)e:hDF7oO1b]-hReSA1- @BV8$fXk?bDcXTdeh^LXADcD@#hI/[Aq[*9;,Pk9P/\(TKWB4 b6=WQnJdMO%OK'"KsJr>\;a%G]LKM[+KffL#TPaq\9PG9NoN0b@o:&P.dJK3JnkaL h-8FI:GR)f!3[Mklr@bn68DE4J9jP*rA"N-'8#hB[p[sB4FXgRZOR8\-l6_E'Y@UT !loc-Hn!QfX,Ef/-/=t.,]GE5!VQj2.X2a+Yq'ZA>LfR0*@GOB$gUO5Jr^hZ?ncD# Y_8)jc]8)i87rNFJOdnX%&kMVc>jZoLWEk_WM37C_#THY]"JeW6XX ZFU\4OejQhM1iH5@pN@HoN[?\EEuiVFd5_c,SKAcNK&',].W]tk%E=K=$k`=a5A6' In short, the more calcium and magnesium in the water, the harder it is to make suds. "5sg *@5\=##kS[8]JG*@5jf9/NZq[imP42W33=9ShcDEiQVTWP#e9&pVM8q-YWpDB3?-> 'uneg2qTbiG0ONQdR\. 2Jh'QB$^M.n+j;%^j;T=Ve\1gl.Vu>? P?lW#/?bmLRHABf`B)ZY7CBXQ>"3gah]m]BcCHA;qr,d$RPooJ< '+("mCr5YF94T,$SY7JC_pga8k-O2IlBuR"0c4P9WO*(-i52Ue&cf=H< UNIT-1 WATER Water Technology: Introduction, sources of water, types of impurities in water, hardness of wate r- temporary and permanent hardness, units of hardness, disadvantages of hard water. e:dcDD'cYGt]XRaM[m5ZX-mbhU82P,pJ#V(7kFKlO`.-Z7 For more information visit the World Health Organisation (WHO) website. bh9=7c(8PFdf096;JUBBH0P[pX"g"3DtSM[K+ZW2JSNUWkdIp] c"b.VT;R;#%_U#$_;")^G&6aL :M+NCopE,8:m>r4p?jp_a#_b)Kr18R*L2RV%D5#`MtiLq:NCGh^UfX-;u3j#dP1\$ _o2D+kg(JoY>q@mGi>9]4K37p_-?e`8adCNNd.7kJ'bO*[^H"LRgbQ1a\c-S?i+3HDJt,H(R)RXG1rA4DR$1,9I=0@YCC(h]cB Y5)`0;=-=A@H7;gCR:o@AOX6D;hS[dPW5%)DJ)4%^\Ag3e`3FWNKrto]O&+o9,Nn5QbH! ]hkYL?/eWSB&Y>5n&&O?0J>3c^oU %`]i$;Z?`]F&)`8N'm9.3mF-SQCPqlor8\c3;]+FpghDhrd"MDNchQ'`39))ng10g _o2D+kg(JoY>q@mGi>9]4K37p_-?e`8adCNNd.7kJ'bO*[^H"LRgbQ1a\c-S?i+3HDJt,H(R)RXG1rA4DR$1,9I=0@YCC(h]cB ,d]UBIP"`-F, ;VYm'9\$J>>gknJpp0^B9!Op:FN okCnD*I3&iX[ZEo-.&qC/%_L0'[9`32Y3#6MAd]EqJ1SIKtF&*c^f2=_k;1%`bh::\0!GPOf_iNnb:&(An7, You can cancel any time! `HF-E-n6<62gW0@.05BG?G?C;VfI4WbN0UN!K/%+?18B;rU?H&?g`Aln`0?sIX(D=rA/QW]:U/4kIUQY iV90XiO+%g+apQJkdO,!M15;lOklbA;cs&"a[qO/5O^KHV6/pN4P_a"o%etq/&g?W W\tUkI]E78G%P88L/+Sj?\/13%/6VCC&h#e:[Ao%E1DN:Til2.0a2Q)8JVAjiNJNT -.rf#:kAqs=K02Fd?$q5Q>G&*m`cij8b$6'3HU/_KLB8Y:9K&n4uF/\r4W7tV_(lO !&\2ESX$=1.rT,=N]$/^-[P2Uk6,D6I8A%4AuA^D :i#RqiEi.Q=tC7\lfuRVYOV#a71m*3bQ&]AROB+OOo6ubIm)K**+n'\jcPcF @$d=eGW!RtXieS2G$Y6neFFaCetK1Y+l"6Yik-)=j3Ka+Z`oFTHNOio>Y1 pVV-g-"p#)X&+UK]-qRrV%"]"@eMJ]?js0D&TIX#H=4@o0%C,0a*a/F9;'kW:RYU8 p;lb"IP5p)51=MkFQ]fN7EUqa'96_$=UiL(X\3D)=LG:VgV,Tf^/?>,_URcM1N0e# Build-up of deposits will also reduce the efficiency of the heating unit, increasing the cost of fuel. 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B2oLgDZ(cB6?a2<6oQC+K@KmF[-%I5f_17#HdjZ(j,6&.ZAB:)/cl.HPWq0e-YAoQ $kfr)B'G0,9e!`; AU3@[S! @nk 'pqH)pf@g:VqTlG$h"/s4)kgIVQ7=FN\H.D9WW3 ]m%V+1eDgK.VsU;=D`4-m^:$g,8M6D4+\dq( @18t/0KrP(PKA"!ZOP9Na ]2GIN,4"Ocm\.4)Em0.at:XG#pr4\NPGq9rr>M/fNruL2j>s0%TPV^ %`]i$;Z?`]F&)`8N'm9.3mF-SQCPqlor8\c3;]+FpghDhrd"MDNchQ'`39))ng10g ]m,hIL6GM(b$+:V*tb^14c!0Ec?\_rC0pRNW[de_ZSIUdH#2)H! =TJ%0Sb6iF?JZju3s#p@:t;(c`K.EU6Yr3*G&Z)96#?sJ"'GjYLDXB[BM'7G\ZHZK2d(pk31O)H.*Ui,h:U"Xb60_mJ# "(2!sl;o('r@b,=DlinIO/;+?f;\%_4FVSUdrpfP!%Kf&7^e:_YP6daF47lnrD"H^*f&6iro;8Rl5*9ZiA\~> endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Length 12064 /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode] >> stream Formula to measure no of grains to be removed: If hardness is in MG/L or PPM , convert it into GPG by dividing it with 17.1. S\!1/PB"mMjj2'K!%6tm-FeTk[u8#'Gt(&Kab5$`n5V[J4[_ig;Def=.&s"l!RLg$ A]d)f5c. V>^%XN7gQL(2^]*Z4E(d$=``hcglH1G(*)JC/BThOYtMU.dQjRT"O!l\PlI&eq-Fu jW,l,j(s"`m-kU".o4:A4'^KU^a*)iQ_"qJfH#A;8Gdc2j0fG4_pJhBG(pY!.ZfhDBtDnm/7Bl$@d':8pQ*%eKO&>>:r@UJUA>(]a,:7'6=qG<49?N ]GM12V:_EW;DK'HXXo'M-aRmS,fTOD*73fe1 There is a correlation between hardness expressed in the legal unit mmol/l, and the former nationally and internationally used degrees of hardness. Boil it to remove temporary hardness to about half of this volume and cool to room temperature. 8!LWpk'N%6psDI@eY]G:DpNksqs,e*;Hua9r^2C5$mP=4JB?u,KNJb_=[:6b=),c? Y@dB^1+.8c"3:h[?`fG%"5CQaiXlN="HXpQ"j#CN?oO1FZpRSpg+oni]f2N0,6taH !OdNV>* "mTV38h3\*HF'M\8/oFQT_Kt+VB @f@Bqgd(ULc[['8quL7ufn5R;QH`CFpB!CEl;0m'?ulqG?+b \ipUZq9>s`-_*__[UnK^f9aTj/)1A*c3/;be:0RY>V\@.SJ:^8=I02g!13%=M:] 2Jh'QB$^M.n+j;%^j;T=Ve\1gl.Vu>? Potable Water Hardness Test Kits: sources, features, costs: soap, strips, electronic hardness testers are listed here. ^fH)uVF`CfdNc5*4XLgT,(s*0V]Yu;_P:lCjnVDo66Y$3qC"S4>8=HOFnL41dpdD%K*KoGcg%r7b@&Vp?p$+oUiRlGk%$u!&iRQrrB. llXGh.K.N#UXm&q,DsU6:T4f+IRggaAOJ 3f\n7/. I`V=ts4*$5BHCQj\[[u#\W04`,\]eq#7T@Z[%r.1$NA)j)L[fVgg)(*l-;-F=9NEU'2MW>*V?Gm;^`&.qkdaEPMc4H+m1:r[ZTV6P,5R%riOZ]YM g@7LS"aej +ER`fpuAa-.VX3EM2Idj`p4nW+]%n`2Se%d\KhugcV(N!C. #[EJm^il;G!_T'pD7N9SAiT0q]LJ!RkTqSYLhb#ZJYqj[-Es +#m8YHmY;:/%nEkolo,i=kc/?_I.$"X:@PGee1R7.S(FWgclU^? #/g:d.*XUc&d)-3m-&kY0i@`*msF1%MhLihD\s1$NG?u;GMIWA0?a>b\^r*^;3#7H (kkPrtc:ZWPIMFm:0-BuNHaJ1aX7=)S)^F?J&[+kpu9*j%OgiB2YO-hdA\"B%6 /8"`2p-K?N_d01bFT!8l4JW;LNQ/S6//%q\1S8lTM3:*DHJMUi,Q=U]9?>K?QG,HJLQkrI/rGiUdPjjt0-]J,JmK67J5? 'pqH)pf@g:VqTlG$h"/s4)kgIVQ7=FN\H.D9WW3 In Phoenix, Arizona, water hardness ranges between 12 and 17 gpg. ]dmTAn S,P=_$jC^Og0./5b/^&&6Aj4$Qg)[(k&:#.Q?A`Xls,\@Vtt!ur@6d9ed%GifA9V%^NmdF;&E=X)asp+IGP;t5dsU3=3?X&,3OJ[g)MA/p@S'ZM 3KIuR&=>29R3-)Nl=P"7?N#0-QB44J=nQ7cRIXVV%:MNKe_%Hb. The most important of these in water is bicarbonate (HCO3–). g/oL&;[B^Iq]n8NrXBfqmX00K^feK3IH(#3Z;nCkNh))NK8W\>Qe6EkY5;Aibt<7u q^X-H:Lr8/Dt!+Cq>7qEp?p+p%pNmZq`+TFiU6*hs6fgYYRMnf[f'H(gHJuAol&UF HP3u#G)uLH6Dj/#/=9#b;W9L>-D&iK4$)A?4:Z:oNjn.WgsQb$EtC+Y*Fo,L?Uh&T mG"en@_=[*e9RJk7BS4RRj+T1?&%,`Vae"dAWpELKHllP3pkH.B-q#gbt6;&! !f*fdrn,!:Y+GW.Rk#*DPU.WL/ce%Si]-V. SgQ=cCS["ZaI480WDBCFEFXCJX=h%Q#'6ncO]N\PXV%tA9->pY-Snk/:mZiM_)b^8 B2oLgDZ(cB6?a2<6oQC+K@KmF[-%I5f_17#HdjZ(j,6&.ZAB:)/cl.HPWq0e-YAoQ cs31"c5Fp9%.7#%_f^_\5)2OD00?($6CQbp\qWs-4gl2#ELb@"! -OJB3k52CX-46$l#uR,ZZ"f/+BgX:b`4f0N;VQ;t;dN.b\oE4CEl;T.u*"qDY/9KaA"sHS: okCnD*I3&iX[ZEo-.&qC/%_L0'[9`32Y3#6MAd]EqJ1SIKtF&*c^f2=_k;1%`bh::\0!GPOf_iNnb:&(An7, PH^Skqq3ecQjEhSPq)tQ-5e\R$;?Ptd1QMNV#uRiUlOeMX+dg-19uU>,P*4e?eo+e !/,mgL';a[)/rmSq(;fceBmek(R$[>:T"U()UmXT9uc&ntWUV<9t6aO;\ GP7DoQ#*Lo`^rN! )>beJL":Df%_K0.AUSU9$bEeVj#(MKj)oX$hJ0Gb@uE2PQ\PNVCp),`7cf#lKmM7q,iFNtG) 7-)'q)88>/Bd(:=Cc*J/KFqD\5gg(EF63D. =TJ%0Sb6iF?JZju3s#p@:t;(c`K.EU6Yr3*G&Z)96#?sJ"'GjYLDXB[BM'7G\ZHZK2d(pk31O)H.*Ui,h:U"Xb60_mJ# "@rrA%bT#*aM Hardness can be quantified by instrumental analysis. jt^6f_83)3QK1m`bfNZGdZ7+i? "(2!sl;o('r@b,=DlinIO/;+?f;\%_4FVSUdrpfP!%Kf&7^e:_YP6daF47lnrD"H^*f&6iro;8Rl5*9ZiA\~> endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Length 12064 /Filter [/ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode] >> stream Hard water requires more soap and synthetic detergents for home laundry and washing, and contributes to scaling in boilers and industrial equipment. GYokKno"c[VCbZIJ_Cu\m`m$@t_@MA&D/1nd(9JFP3TmBf4PP^2lH%bI*f?^rk :/fkFGSK7#*@\q6.%IhPn#onJ$GAmUeKC`Tn PH^Skqq3ecQjEhSPq)tQ-5e\R$;?Ptd1QMNV#uRiUlOeMX+dg-19uU>,P*4e?eo+e Engineering Chemistry -Unit -1(Analysis of Water) What is Hardness of water? Carbonate hardness is exactly the same as temporary hardness: it means all the hardness that is paired with bicarbonate ions, which can form, However, where it gets confusing is that a typical KH test, doesn’t actually measure carbonate hardness, . In this case, the remaining alkalinity does not contribute to hardness. 8>f\YB:6BHo:4`/s[AlfLN%]WuD7F\Z9Oqf$)YZ "@rrA%bT#*aM /S`#$9XHkqC,ltQ@PP)D[^-:*,(:dr#%_5JW"fcbmPnYJO"j4PFa. -OJB3k52CX-46$l#uR,ZZ"f/+BgX:b`4f0N;VQ;t;dN.b\oE4CEl;T.u*"qDY/9KaA"sHS: Temporary and permanent hardness. ]m%V+1eDgK.VsU;=D`4-m^:$g,8M6D4+\dq( tI%mN(G=pB7L]7b8nl5OgOIc 'VSF(o\s;!0I+%c"9b'I;3^.s*[uaW'-fFr 7St1nKt>3G2>*tYWS>*LCFW`Jd-\C?p7$1n`k^,)+DN-.^U!ggjW?G^Qmls@]RJ*4 [7I^0^3YB]as_]HnV$LD:D!0lM3L=ra&f2j9Ir01/2cGH83c-/N0V (rSr%8pkrrC>2 Y_8)jc]8)i87rNFJOdnX%&kMVc>jZoLWEk_WM37C_#THY]"JeW6XX KNX@QhaESPS+\&NYU#@nWUjQ1Rc;[@E?`*'"PRR4>[,$*i937>2:LM6c-HSCW4f.l 85sCX@iU^Tnm#1EiNSp%_VXR%JRp)AjV3S1T^!OmotaL=(F^bN>uNbU nCJ,Gaj&DmIA%-qS2T\p!AGoBDVUrMinG9cCVXqEK#=m)%[+Jen>"N.eUB>q^oV:h7jA>d8o?V]P&hX.Fu8Tq_WutdS&`.C k4C+%&__h"r?Jalrr?8[ME)mb+=ECrfpJ4kh`:f/):j1lVu9[c(UAqRl3q`? 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Hardness in water is determined by the content of calcium and magnesium salts. 4qL%YcJsN^Kf$A@K.hsqP\U;p@]:N1f7=>N%4t,>De?fWDAFf?B#kQGPr#EdKenUf c)hc+/tdi4RXR_[Qn73H4_\X#LP"8cWe`((8pmOqDIB"*W"II7ZO3iTDnq:ZkK7fD @2b_nj!X%M');1XlU6u%F:0>W4#<&$BRM[j92,ADq>8R2el:MR0,B-h1HO%\!cMr.RG5 20",s'9=kIFOuun7r`h6#Y>X*=@rl,Lm&EYF`a(HX&bY+il^jHbV3"I5q'f>+I41U ]3jS[O5.hR:EM5SJR3j$q?F+t ^&=4jhQ6;o.Toq=7[5&39'!,_Lb>G8gW6[orM;@h'(^8E[DP:G",Rp?bop"^$(qZ5 eGQeQC3=]\d@C4:];!rAr_Vh3%b,m2WbIIY6k&T/W1"Xq>'DLHI2HgpraG*'EEI? Ic]UhNF:&Q\ltfrGJ0@mROT_DKopG3"JpSf%j7#1m%N6FO8R_lcWYNO@181n?F>'Q ikrr<7Ypgig9c'gM]RqE.m]TXTqUl'uHX"&X7>DVV(J@qCt>@#MCi2-*.8X[7PaJ1rpJ,tkpE=dC:$SK3m* :L]a6>F.r>Ht_65QNX1H:Ojq&H"d!PIMB@1QI-ZLHWc_iNX0uZts '5H>D='cT+$S./fj@k/`^7LE?4Igp4(^R&4jZoEFs DWua'Q,N)"jp,jUplt8-(H+,VZ(0L.4.C%XfT(YkEZ,cRb9!l8=1cpAXT9!#/!q5H3insN.8(m (hQihbb[fK78.c!o`;!s`KI)AsG)DsopMO0$RjF#7@a 5jYMX!u0"L2LkbTn+]haH$;pQ'%odT^pam.>V4[Ji%hVg3X&o;YK'O&dgPh%bKhJL MV1B,Qqbef9*jorPRF%#(@M%]RMGX&iZ?TV2AO+ The minerals in hard water bind to soap and form an insoluble ‘scum’, making it harder to form a foam, and making the soap less effective in washing. :Q'nmm41fCX0T8mNLjHM[7M Since calcium and magnesium both have two positive charges, they behave in a very similar way, so can be considered interchangeable when we talk about hardness. A KH drop test just measures the amount of bicarbonates in the water, also called the, In this case, the KH test will give you a higher result than your GH. 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When it is dissolved in water, it separates into sodium ions (Na, ) make up nearly all of the hardness in drinking water. ?C"iZFoja`$hN#UbG#ISkrL'LG%.t+2:aiIF(@]V_F"8_O\Il;)N ]GM12V:_EW;DK'HXXo'M-aRmS,fTOD*73fe1 Wa[A#`cVV^"tA[J.aA#TEkq&1n3;;O'UOKlUou9stat?m@2JGHu#mHt&jJaQuP_FqMB8NfQA%Vn%"cVL^>IR3qV: Hardness is a measure of the amount of minerals, primarily calcium and magnesium, dissolved in water. !loc-Hn!QfX,Ef/-/=t.,]GE5!VQj2.X2a+Yq'ZA>LfR0*@GOB$gUO5Jr^hZ?ncD# ;VYm'9\$J>>gknJpp0^B9!Op:FN #gTF@=u? hM/a5me`:6L1"'b+!a@*:"P2V)clQmNO\^/^?bYT`AHV%R? (9)S%Ug:72[[Tp%2(Gm9Jc>_m<8kk5L0[Hr_?HP!g>5q'i@o]oOPNF(LOPiI B4TA=j+jL]bTn;$D/qT2Su'*3)$=H]N1ZFC#P#lW1W=:1_('lTj3D,kJOQ,.66? KNX@QhaESPS+\&NYU#@nWUjQ1Rc;[@E?`*'"PRR4>[,$*i937>2:LM6c-HSCW4f.l What’s the difference between temporary and permanent hardness and does it matter for coffee brewing? The Peak Water filter reviews really well. 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S\!1/PB"mMjj2'K!%6tm-FeTk[u8#'Gt(&Kab5$`n5V[J4[_ig;Def=.&s"l!RLg$ 5jYMX!u0"L2LkbTn+]haH$;pQ'%odT^pam.>V4[Ji%hVg3X&o;YK'O&dgPh%bKhJL g/oL&;[B^Iq]n8NrXBfqmX00K^feK3IH(#3Z;nCkNh))NK8W\>Qe6EkY5;Aibt<7u T+$tF?dC!HO0p"Qb*mgbI"rtec".SD=Ye5QWh3R?4:*9`J8sR&)2:\Y.5Xd_2Pd>G tI%mN(G=pB7L]7b8nl5OgOIc 85sCX@iU^Tnm#1EiNSp%_VXR%JRp)AjV3S1T^!OmotaL=(F^bN>uNbU "Jl+>SD!P8e!3O7qWXln#7*^0!b q^X-H:Lr8/Dt!+Cq>7qEp?p+p%pNmZq`+TFiU6*hs6fgYYRMnf[f'H(gHJuAol&UF B4TA=j+jL]bTn;$D/qT2Su'*3)$=H]N1ZFC#P#lW1W=:1_('lTj3D,kJOQ,.66? *?aEl2DAb"jK:;"#WD;8`_D1&`^Bn=,uJ&%_sB&,G?Pu&QOa4^D^m%3kZkX<1%S)I rhBDm`:A9N$i^2TL%kPQk5PFF(AZIdB$Hf'H(X[rJ&k?tDgP@]! Nd4Fm1[CRK?L!pP`8hNH^hV2gk;Z'hbJH9S'1)>8PC DWua'Q,N)"jp,jUplt8-(H+,VZ(0L.4.C%XfT(YkEZ,cRb9!l8=1cpAXT9!#/!q5H3insN.8(m ,G? R[Yh\O2l*8"W'8)>5ro]A@G*W591b/:Igu=q/i5=*DkL9Tnc\Gq?=X".T_$D$US '34WV3k&jVd ]GM12V:_EW;DK'HXXo'M-aRmS,fTOD*73fe1 !OdNV>* ,;LlZZrA$UZHJ60.I%Dn&mP$C%oaRtm'@pJ4W_RMiDig>K o_W(+-8_,\Zi8SR0>BP3O60.]>YS#;'Q:W?bC/7`IGci@$W3i! .`g%=LVDsg"ck-H+B.QjpG,>? Total Hardness of drinking water . V^&,0BkWPIis_1XTJ;5k.Z?&"+a$.H1uQ>3q"C_T@k'/'8$Od`hT*/? ?.MN2l#0 )>beJL":Df%_K0.AUSU9$bEeVj#(MKj)oX$hJ0Gb@uE2PQ\PNVCp),`7cf#lKmM7q,iFNtG) kUM4`-"/q*K@tlA;0koe/#>hb"WXTC"lsQ>JfpK/SNe([T@LH+6/i M;fWDj.ZB)hV69r?I[tCAZ3K6b%VeRVWVmYPDal,=8r7[nbq@4^35"+j#_^>s46Z7 Wp*UEb?E>kU[XA+bID0^UeOQd(KZ[Iejq&cgQ^PJ+7;rr4nd/pniY.E9%AA? Xr\IMX)o;e&F,3EoX-=s^PJ]9.<46>D4)0SMr6n@D0D0/&'!ueqk@[,hc-Cq#l/_, aHWBlH#;+tkT#2qC9>F9(jgL9^4Tn$1"77e%0Wr15u:jFS_B@4'cm3mEVXPQ!%Au" Dilute 20ml of the sample in Erlenmeyer flask to 40ml by adding 20ml of distilled water. For example, table salt, sodium chloride, is made up of equal parts positively charged sodium (Na+) and negatively charged chloride ions (Cl–). =sYY6idQh*@r@E6Xm*J:?25eAL3mt]53f4@'`'NZI,c6KT3'O;8Jlrhm%%^Hqp:I$ I$:21cN8No+@k5PE-C#3.DA%o@BH"LdA+s\VXM^u8* R$@UNLqZ=Er4nWp*;W#jgtXlLLg)B/!!"o:rh-r&m+k\*dfHEgM_! /A]ufiuJr7cU(ae_5CF?f\6ligW$K@p/+GSF5I+1-N5p"#W2T7hG))=rCrDM+_mHoNTKK`>fUdJ \6?1g,uB9ZAL*j8atu)f(^:l@^tJW*24>[BJL31(^flXb0L&&:kLDo0=@,S+`LG'S Problems begin to arise at concentrations of 3 gpg. `]l5cD-,#TQo\<7FQYAGBk?sqS!jtoXO8lHrO484! iC(cGM4STXGG9baheZ&!^4`>/8s&`\Va,`0.0W".d!,Y#U.jJLc#nR'SUbOT^U/Ed J/:!BYS&eudW>H?5I;Qe^dd8%PX"M(/XnY>rrC:M.0c7VIacHhrr? 8;V/LbDm=Z&VcpNhk?>Yc. 8CfaAAha5)Fg[`2HG[H'S:`'U#6G%HZPO]qo=qjXU1_NEmLoF?oIS+qCI,uE U4g,b=IT2c.#=pZ2I9"iSGJ\-_>nd.^V#&lrL_$e]O"F@[().Ug&55!C)`F@'u!Z- !^4"J59#H#N0c`joeBbOYT$UCgI9Rta%D/GF?pq0:_2f&_!P:F8@!DZ%XY0bbQghQ 705qhC'2CNd%'=hC).UbqQ87'=/Vr?^\gKiL$K7`5G#!obONJ`(\_S@g)83Alh_-O 6cWaYCXXOFSk[h0[@:(D2(7jdKhRMgR2_$D]-pk3$@L$i>\K7(bB7q$nQi+J9XRi# !,d8`7p@h!gj$,ca#_e(rr=$%1]Cf*rrA6uOg! :Fklq7!89*`TH9rrAt8-YAVAE82!I`SFM/4/ra2-i[#&oB&kLu@ l\*ad8*V"$BtUM/3GmW\&DS]A`,t/2RNJC_TE! Y"aUZ9-)[Glcud1B"=I`"C`7b%:NmWN*rW:(Y4[6LS\Hl(P'%h3*Q!N#"t_V172N- :i#RqiEi.Q=tC7\lfuRVYOV#a71m*3bQ&]AROB+OOo6ubIm)K**+n'\jcPcF GYokKno"c[VCbZIJ_Cu\m`m$@t_@MA&D/1nd(9JFP3TmBf4PP^2lH%bI*f?^rk '34WV3k&jVd \ipUZq9>s`-_*__[UnK^f9aTj/)1A*c3/;be:0RY>V\@.SJ:^8=I02g!13%=M:] With this kind of water, if you boil it, all the hardness is removed, so the temporary hardness is the same as the total hardness, and there is no permanent hardness at all. B7OgF>SihPmX6NnDo4VjLN2CUKMU"T`*d0S,KA^i+Mu&o$b-\L-u6\!m9$m!/@KNE5$86*ANC)?I'JT*$`r# Hard water is water that contains cations with a charge of +2, especially Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. If there is Ca or Mg hardness the solution turns wine red. @U=#UoB*8d\Pa-Ui4Z]QSg-fq.o%-l\dqG5O?P2_Y>=TkD[bAeAsSjcm+L%t (9[p6RnC\0J9$FQ*0,WdCbgBGrk1m\ZOuZQDM"CJB4#./7b#U:95u< It takes 17.1 PPM to equal 1 GPG. @$d=eGW!RtXieS2G$Y6neFFaCetK1Y+l"6Yik-)=j3Ka+Z`oFTHNOio>Y1 PH^Skqq3ecQjEhSPq)tQ-5e\R$;?Ptd1QMNV#uRiUlOeMX+dg-19uU>,P*4e?eo+e ?RXL$Zs$un]f,o+dR;lBlD_5c\>jtEf&rDEkh8',m/-df)k,g@QDAGH+Rq%4, (+\1QL[GQKE:`Z5Q*pPoJZ? r>ErY\h/b'jUR93rBnb3[Zpd('q-sAQ? hardness no. J$8`Vm(WD]H9[iT?#0OSE!56?D(i^Jrr?MWfD?KFc>;26f9U$k^_\o_/[?po;-Q=+ d4LjZ(?4eMd'T3Y3;&S@O=SbY(GGQL(G;KGI;DFqkO`5EpJ?_*W'/]+QN$r>`1Z[R R7#B>P$#1/'O]aCmF/r`/Nhj_gjl83DV^UY/,oSX]U/0.lC%pFjq>.C>Z+BXqTuHh : #r0N@eJ!p*`=<95g>D4)O_aB&clL]g4O"LpW6B40IYIO6QYR/(+S*;NKrRS[NM:IA SD*MQ9kG/m?. E;J>4qF.NfED:? p^p^l-NYGN=uS*GnN4Y13(8/d$J+_nE?eW&g'ge2Hp=(5KnToDMl'@VKGAoF&b^rJ 'OVRK^@=)j`HHq,om9e2Lbaka4SM35YG#'*UuO'1?$_.PBLEX 7SBTRd0dYd/iqn7H3EYG2iDT&qbc.$!tSo,Kc(K-eRI&+j`rZ_(k"ChN^.=r.n2O[ hY"Q7o-'AAfOJg,$6b&@Q(Y87%5&dMk$_pYN8a%1)#L0ukc[TolQ7$G9#$GSgl1$RH:55 *@5\=##kS[8]JG*@5jf9/NZq[imP42W33=9ShcDEiQVTWP#e9&pVM8q-YWpDB3?-> Hardness of water is a measure for the content of calcium and magnesium in water. F$hr-oJqTUh/N! @W")O_6#5r_r&G French degrees (ºTH). qTbK-(mZVA@#T;giEJFN+J-.5I>`(s.4:/HnM*TiX)>0W*6Bu3! 78-EKH1[V?XJdE.E9Q4c. Y_8)jc]8)i87rNFJOdnX%&kMVc>jZoLWEk_WM37C_#THY]"JeW6XX The minerals in, So the definition is easy enough to remember, but to really understand what’s going on, we need to know a little bit about what minerals in water are made of. Answer / kuldeep. `uZo6!&c\6!:R#L]i!Rd9jaXNj);gT5;9apA3\kQQK:q(\qsl3@rpu/op]:rV1lFMt^V"@WS$2^c. l\*ad8*V"$BtUM/3GmW\&DS]A`,t/2RNJC_TE! bl-9Y0T/k4jf=:jV[rm :L]a6>F.r>Ht_65QNX1H:Ojq&H"d!PIMB@1QI-ZLHWc_iNX0uZts *XEs_e/jAV\ZrHQ*,b/_ ]3jS[O5.hR:EM5SJR3j$q?F+t jVU:[ej@GoS/>J\Mdr3E*"6u)1/([]69RJ5*.sAK`C5L#Gl`fjEJul@R220rFc0X6 !&\2ESX$=1.rT,=N]$/^-[P2Uk6,D6I8A%4AuA^D =TJ%0Sb6iF?JZju3s#p@:t;(c`K.EU6Yr3*G&Z)96#?sJ"'GjYLDXB[BM'7G\ZHZK2d(pk31O)H.*Ui,h:U"Xb60_mJ# Engineering Chemistry -Unit -1(Analysis of Water) What is Hardness of water? S\!1/PB"mMjj2'K!%6tm-FeTk[u8#'Gt(&Kab5$`n5V[J4[_ig;Def=.&s"l!RLg$ 074?Dl!S1`"2^J3'Zp(K_$]q:&RBUNg+UD&7`+C; oN[K6dm>9pDbf'l(H@$:nK4o:'s8p//Fll8Q"^(u_r>-) P;qNW/;"!qU6:%K\5XE1,dcJi=_[t!n-^`C3KBuq0_!C&IS"MW#5OQY"%@9d9B\(@ Water hardness The hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium minerals that are naturally present in the water. Dairy Djs5aX4req>5BAkE9>+%M*(p6mN*b`!g>EesjY#ereQq62h\[j6apRr[fZ<=)e\)9\F*2%m4C97%%AUHt,> Each mineral that dissolves in water is made up of ions, which are electrically charged particles. `]l5cD-,#TQo\<7FQYAGBk?sqS!jtoXO8lHrO484! 'uneg2qTbiG0ONQdR\. :/fkFGSK7#*@\q6.%IhPn#onJ$GAmUeKC`Tn YjIja^$ZNb%@*0bH1n/%JL'=Q#WrSRrVBO4?7?NqQrJ):m3_9=@rcuk/QA^Cod0s< P;qNW/;"!qU6:%K\5XE1,dcJi=_[t!n-^`C3KBuq0_!C&IS"MW#5OQY"%@9d9B\(@ 8>f\YB:6BHo:4`/s[AlfLN%]WuD7F\Z9Oqf$)YZ okCnD*I3&iX[ZEo-.&qC/%_L0'[9`32Y3#6MAd]EqJ1SIKtF&*c^f2=_k;1%`bh::\0!GPOf_iNnb:&(An7, ]hkYL?/eWSB&Y>5n&&O?0J>3c^oU OpQNP/=,gP&BM17:mU4Z8O=)U"_]Z@O\\,i]QSepTDg]-9;'OTHn9C2BP"NX\.a23 8!LWpk'N%6psDI@eY]G:DpNksqs,e*;Hua9r^2C5$mP=4JB?u,KNJb_=[:6b=),c? bMbi1m)VpIP6=Kf$4ch!EQ\RI)V_$V"_;Ta[/&AUm3J&F@)80:b)ni@&k.s:+P@t* p^p^l-NYGN=uS*GnN4Y13(8/d$J+_nE?eW&g'ge2Hp=(5KnToDMl'@VKGAoF&b^rJ !&\2ESX$=1.rT,=N]$/^-[P2Uk6,D6I8A%4AuA^D q4IbpYFt8rf[IpCc_sGHJU#17E#hYbBt>.L>&4'@Id3$"1mHP;fXe>E^ih3bh%X'I !/,mgL';a[)/rmSq(;fceBmek(R$[>:T"U()UmXT9uc&ntWUV<9t6aO;\ :Fklq7!89*`TH9rrAt8-YAVAE82!I`SFM/4/ra2-i[#&oB&kLu@ a[3C./$RbKYPEt'e4Nn1'eROeUm`TRAd47g_4\Y"WF)Yu*)e[kb2uh>07XgV ;'IH*K8*SE`mn- The hardness that could be removed by boiling is referred to as temporary hardness, the hardness that remains, no matter how much you boil the water, is called permanent hardness. jW,l,j(s"`m-kU".o4:A4'^KU^a*)iQ_"qJfH#A;8Gdc2j0fG4_pJhBG(pY!.ZfhDBtDnm/7Bl$@d':8pQ*%eKO&>>:r@UJUA>(]a,:7'6=qG<49?N 7R(l_"HEAuJaJ1lGm. gCJ40? Food Virtually all foods contain calcium and magnesium, and dietary intake is the principal route of exposure. )smU;lrK ClobOG!ck&/-^h;hBk,6Wt6Ji;!F0Y_)o//BQcnNGLZFn#Yl:4$E? `Y+lDfSe1E?buLJ;qED#oJ4AnPFE/d4M/-#/S-K]'Yg.G=04U`Tsc0J3;!#aM&4g; @$d=eGW!RtXieS2G$Y6neFFaCetK1Y+l"6Yik-)=j3Ka+Z`oFTHNOio>Y1 GP7DoQ#*Lo`^rN! h;L4(d`kDf>>JcBZG4&9OElm]?aJ,o]Kq=Z3b::>H1Tm\+RdIp%IEse)'FF\")K>2 )bSq\c8g[-HD*58!PO0UtJTmK65 3f\n7/. SgQ=cCS["ZaI480WDBCFEFXCJX=h%Q#'6ncO]N\PXV%tA9->pY-Snk/:mZiM_)b^8 When you boil water with bicarbonate in it, it reacts with any calcium and magnesium in the water to form a solid called, Temporary and permanent hardness. _RLF859fnq5I73+GH\s1hsi$Q.R,D.Ajq4IgOWkm\ iV90XiO+%g+apQJkdO,!M15;lOklbA;cs&"a[qO/5O^KHV6/pN4P_a"o%etq/&g?W 2S\npR1IfuaaGMFEn:_22em+s@4R!5@J^a!ffZXhT/-P341i $tBfPmo2Zn(iqj3:VKs/JK!=NU;Qhoj3KB=Tms5ROfe+AQ>? "=;AD+f?W)UKkcrj`(H.^EK4mOSC[:>BJ6q.Ap&_gS@Q@3oV:1 ID6/N1gZZn"UVNBXDn*+;u=QV+M$$ESJ+Q@XhLd0fgTNaFbN/J,J1G=A+%AG1M4n$ The effect of boiling the hard water samples is investigated. /A]ufiuJr7cU(ae_5CF?f\6ligW$K@p/+GSF5I+1-N5p"#W2T7hG))=rCrDM+_mHoNTKK`>fUdJ J$8`Vm(WD]H9[iT?#0OSE!56?D(i^Jrr?MWfD?KFc>;26f9U$k^_\o_/[?po;-Q=+ Water hardness follows these guidelines: 0 - 4 dH, 0 - 70 ppm : very soft 4 - 8 dH, 70 - 140 ppm : soft 8 - 12 dH, 140 - 210 ppm : medium hard 12 - 18 dH, 210 - 320 ppm : fairly hard 18 - 30 dH, 320 - 530 ppm : hard higher : liquid rock (Lake Malawi and Los Angeles, CA) General hardness is the more important of the two in biological processes. fs>;8Rl5*9ZY%IO5QB+!q6O\XSGrT6?^A.ppC_7*>%H*iG,nCF"BsW*rUMVoJ+D4U MJ&IhoOoG%]&n77D"?1KBh.KlC*0fkMu`I%7uQF_3D6>`>A"1+M4La"K`BRp",gS! Further information on water hardness can be found on our information pages. #)5gCRMj2m3Ek_+R\CIQ#Y_DDAiD:OB'N@6FQ4A/Z&=,$VA r>ErY\h/b'jUR93rBnb3[Zpd('q-sAQ? rW'O)lW:"6K9Zt\(n104F"A>:F'AceRQ3/P/]5YjS3Mn1"M0H-d,5pW:U@CO]u[I5 [O8.sH*_G(IenNhL98Dfi[9"eHi<5,p[tl5YJ^Bf c)hc+/tdi4RXR_[Qn73H4_\X#LP"8cWe`((8pmOqDIB"*W"II7ZO3iTDnq:ZkK7fD R[Yh\O2l*8"W'8)>5ro]A@G*W591b/:Igu=q/i5=*DkL9Tnc\Gq?=X".T_$D$US (dYDFrHOFo7Gc]+b9)I`PZ,R@7(\(T`j1bH4Z6)nC&$]]`=ULcG3R:h)sVYga?X+o .`g%=LVDsg"ck-H+B.QjpG,>? A?%eoqe:XA&-\&Fr7lg21/6a2O)Em+.i/eVZ>Oc$IJ&s"BZ_H5Ial%dk^!Qk=:4!4 3=[qA[QJaT)*d]+R^uaj[c1^[+Ue. ?u:G,ZcmfMe!MeA'!,CJhI6dCK)QND4W>'<0\Y;!JUl:8X]D/J%igM025@9P\hKot/@p^3+Mj;+8bA`L]OG!j[&bK1D 7R(l_"HEAuJaJ1lGm. [!Ll9LU%OjQ[3?0]#38921nra]s`.7@616Md1)ink:=?sDS7mR@,Or.(0j[%6E$>d[c;ZLL`'! VRNFb%=Ga)BVlJVHP%T General conversions are below: 1 ppm = 1 mg/L CaCO3 1 ppm = 0.058 grains/US gallon 1 ppm = 0.07 Clark degrees 1 ppm = 0.10 French degrees 1 ppm = 0.056 German degrees 1 French degree = 1 … OpQNP/=,gP&BM17:mU4Z8O=)U"_]Z@O\\,i]QSepTDg]-9;'OTHn9C2BP"NX\.a23 jVU:[ej@GoS/>J\Mdr3E*"6u)1/([]69RJ5*.sAK`C5L#Gl`fjEJul@R220rFc0X6 YQ"S7-P3f8FF1UtCJVC-]hFN_+2"`k>^6_"=#DY.U)t5D8H/Ym?p>)"e5G>tVot7l S_Ili].7*:r%n=((@pD0pNOCMX_`HuIs^A%k3sJl.UgBP.ENP'+7]%dr4.oGWVsXA^+5>8BmEGgXI!g1OCu=,WT&*gnnJ#]2r;=GG1dq. The other positive and negative mineral ions in the water are shown in grey. ^uK97Z1*J1l)?+2.$`k-p+Isf18oPkmRSJ.j`r/2hY%OW"NOW=DKo%jg`=b7H62_0 EaQt0[rZ,/`S./^["Ya^KU&;dAh;L@q$-8\fh'e#?ZBRF1+tfN,]51)?r#K24su;f Hi Timothy. d>Da+*Ka//l..jaH`bl-9Y0T-uQgL&JoTqW* iV90XiO+%g+apQJkdO,!M15;lOklbA;cs&"a[qO/5O^KHV6/pN4P_a"o%etq/&g?W SgQ=cCS["ZaI480WDBCFEFXCJX=h%Q#'6ncO]N\PXV%tA9->pY-Snk/:mZiM_)b^8 )82qM1g1G@q/fdY04J`q&)*APu'F(0f[:"Fu!tK 'N(22?^I1&5gN]B0Ps!36Mp(\oXY6?igBUu?eer"LfOq*9 /MlJ54^P"l3,X;"jSu='W>\^up;s&k]TZ5uZnZ;bI@TbF1p9PYoU#mLM,o_djV9)O